7 Best Web Development Languages to Learn [Updated 2023]

7 Best Web Development Languages to Learn [Updated 2023]

You may have Googled a hundred times but are still unsure which web programming language is worth learning. It continues to get trickier with modern web development offering numerous technological solutions.

If you're feeling uncertain in this puzzle, we have compiled a list of in-demand programming languages that we believe you'll find valuable. Before we move on, let’s run through some general knowledge.

What is web development?
Web development is the process of building and maintaining websites or web applications. It combines a mix of skills, from web design, development, testing, and launch to maintenance. To make this happen, programmers use various web development languages to ensure website functionality, responsiveness, and user experience.

What is the difference between the front end and the back end?
Websites and web applications consist of two major components, the front end, the client side, and the back end, the server side:

  • Front End: the component users interact with directly, including text, colors, buttons, images, styles, tables, and navigation. This component is responsible for user interface, responsiveness, and performance. Front-end developers employ languages and technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to build the client side.

  • Back End: just like the word says, the hidden part, the component involving the server, database, and application logic. This component is responsible for all functionalities’ smooth performance behind the scenes. Server-side development for websites and web applications includes Java, Ruby, Python, Node, etc.


How to choose between languages?


There is no specific answer to this question, but some defined criteria would surely do. It's essential to focus not solely on popularity, but also on factors such as maintainability, security, performance, scalability, environment, learning curve, community support, and the language's vision.

Check out the list to get a better picture.

7 Web development languages to consider learning

  1. JavaScript (Brendan Eich, 1995)

    JavaScript is an open-source versatile programming language, and the most widely used programming language according to a 2020 survey by Stack Overflow. JS (abbr.) gives a dynamic and interactive touch to the website, while its scope extends to AI, ML, mobile and game development. The versatility of the language is one main reason you should go for it; being the cornerstone to the front end, with the help of the Node.js environment, it covers the back-end operations too. Moreover, it performs swift integration with other programming languages and also supports OOP principles. Alongside the numerous advantages, JavaScript may be vulnerable in terms of security, because its code is visible from the client side and can be a matter of attack. And although each language requires secure coding practices, and although most browsers support client-side security, developers should always take the extra step while coding in JavaScript.  Multiple solutions have and continue to be proposed. Learning JavaScript would also provide you with stability in your career, as its demand in the job market is unlikely to decrease in the foreseeable future. JavaScript’s simple syntax makes it accessible for newcomers, and its supportive community is the icing on the cake for beginner programmers, highlighting its modern and progressive nature.


  2. TypeScript (Microsoft, 2012)

    TypeScript, a modern open-source object-oriented language, which has gained rapid popularity due to its readability and maintainability. In short, TS (abbr.) is a superset of JS that enables static typing, helping to catch type-related errors at compile-time. With this being the primary difference, TS retains JS functionalities and structures and is compatible across different platforms and browsers. At the end of the day, the TS code has to be compiled into JS to run on the browser, which is, in fact, an extra step. But it comes in handy for big complex projects because faster troubleshooting will ensure reliability and security. This language is yet to become popular in the world of the back end due to its interaction with Node.js. From a learning perspective, a JS developer can indeed code in TS, although additional training is required.  But the TS community doesn't have much to worry about thanks to the substantial support from a fast-growing GitHub user base. 


  3. Python (Guido van Rossum, 1991)

    Next comes Python, an open-source, multipurpose technology that supports OOP principles. IT is used in Machine learning and Data Science, and of course straight in our business, the World Wide Web. In this context, Python is considered an easy-to-learn language due to its simple and concise syntax. It is especially well-suited for beginner developers due to its readability. Its ability to interoperate with code written in other programming languages, various frameworks, and a large collection of modules and packages, assures a smooth coding experience. Its versatility further extends its usefulness in server-side scripting, web scraping, and automation. Built-in libraries like Django and Flask prove efficient for the rapid development of complex applications, saving time and cost resources. Considering its popularity among developers and the array of advantages Python offers, its use will rapidly expand in the business world.


  4. PHP (Rasmus Lerdorf, 1995)

    It's fair of you to wonder if it is still worth learning PHP in 2023. The short answer would be yes, but if you have come this far, you desire to know why. PHP is an open-source object-oriented programming language with a vibrant ecosystem. PHP is celebrated for flexibility because it allows developers to build a wide range of web applications. It is platform-independent and gets along well with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. PHP should be your choice for developing data-heavy applications since database integration is exceptionally smooth with this language. PHP excels in loading speed due to its seamless integration with web servers. It efficiently processes PHP scripts and employs optimization techniques, storing precompiled scripts bytecode in memory. This reduces the necessity of recompiling the code with each request, ensuring swift loading times. On one hand, PHP is a bit behind with debugging tools if you compare it to other programming languages. But after all, its vibrant ecosystem, longstanding presence in the industry, and continuous updates have proven its reliability and relevance to this day.  


  5. Go (Google, 2009)

    Go is another open-source programming language, and though still young compared with other languages, it has rather simple and friendly documentation. While newcomers learn it with ease because of its simple structure, programmers familiar with C are even luckier because its syntax is very similar to C. Go is an efficient choice for avoiding possible programming errors like memory leaks, as its garbage collector automates memory management.  Moreover, its concurrency and scalability will allow your code to handle multiple requests at once. It may get a little challenging as Go lacks extensive libraries, and it does not support generic functions yet. Let's keep in mind Go is a young but promising language, which has already handled the paradoxical phenomenon of simplicity in complex projects. And while Go is yet to gain popularity, it is already trusted by big companies like Netflix and Uber


  6. Java (Sun Microsystems, 1995)

    Java is an open-source, general-purpose object-oriented programming language, and in the realm of web development, it is responsible for server-side programming. Despite its reliance on a relatively complex structure, the efficiency Java brings into your code bypasses any difficulty. You will love Java as your backend as it stands firm with its philosophy, “Write once run anywhere”, supported by its Java Virtual Machine (JVM), ensuring long-time use. Frameworks like Spring provide pre-built components, which makes the development process more productive. Java is also resistant to multithreaded and high-traffic applications and, in the meantime, its built-in security components further contribute to its robustness. You may not rank Java as your top choice when it comes to execution speed, since its garbage collector and code compilation through JVM take additional time. But it will secure a reliable experience for you as a developer and stability in your career.


  7. C# (Microsoft, 2000)

    C# is an open-source, object-oriented language used for game, mobile, and web development, able to run on multiple OSs. One main advantage of C# is that it supports all types of web development, and its structured nature helps solve complex problems through concise procedures and functions. Despite its capability to handle tricky tasks, the well-structured documentation of C# offers a clear and understandable learning environment. This language seems to be all about structure since the classes are also well-defined here, and compared to C and C++, the syntax is much simpler. It’s scalable, updatable, and interoperable, providing high developer productivity. And don’t worry about its dependence on the .NET environment because the .NET community is continually increasing.

Final thoughts

We tried to shortlist a list of web development languages that offer effective experience and valuable career prospects. Each of the languages mentioned above (and 100s unmentioned) serves a different purpose, yet they all share the fundamentals developers prioritize considering both productivity and career growth. While it may still appear challenging to pick, setting your specific problem-solving goal in web development can help you make up your mind.